Patents - Projects - Concepts


AN-70 concept of modernization and serial production

10 March 2015

An attempt to innovate

YAK-44 101

D-27 turbo-prop engines were unique in their class. Aircraft designers planned to set them up on AN-70 and Yak-44 airplanes. Yak-44 was designed in the 1970s as a patrolling radar aircraft similar to E-2 Hawkeye. Unfortunately, only a mock up has been built, while the works scrapped due to the shortage of funding in 1993.

Symbol of  USSR

NK-12 is the most powerful serial turbo-prop engine in the world (14,800 horsepower) with two coaxial (contra-rotating) propellers. From 1954, airplanes such as TU-95 (Bear), AN-22 "Antei" (Cock), TU-114 "Russia" (Cleat), TU-126 (Moss), TU-142 (Bear-F) and A-90 "Orlyonok" [Eaglet] were all equipped with the NK-12 engines. The modernization of TU-95MS on the Aviakor Aircraft Plant (Samara, Russia) envisages setting up this type of engines too, which would extend the aircraft exploitation term until 2025.

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Winner of the race 

Airbus 400M was designed 24 years after AN-70; it became a popular and reliable product in just 11 years. As of today, 11 Airbus A400M Atlas are already in use, while the contracts for 174 airplanes have been signed with a range of major customers, including companies from Germany, France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Turkey, etc. Malaysia became the first non-European customer for four A400M. The deliveries have started in early 2015.

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Amicable agreement

 AN-70 was in the air when aircraft designers did not even start to draw their first draft of how Airbus A400M should be composed. AN-70 marveled aviation experts and the public with its unique flying characteristics. The airplane was not only the product of a Ukrainian-Russian cooperation but specifically tailored to the requirements of the Russian Ministry of Defence. It had a short landing and take off range, fuel-efficient, cruising speed: 750 km/h, payload: 20 tons for a distance of 6,000 km and cargo section with appropriate technical characteristics. …

Concept of a high-speed multi-purpose air-launched UAV

12 February 2015

Echo of the Cold War

Х-55 tpLCY

X-55 (Kh-55) cruise missile designed in 1981 could fly over long distances, possessed high aerodynamic qualities, larger fuel reserves and minimal weight. The fact that it had to be based on a carrier-aircraft dictated the small size of the missile, requiring to fold a variety of aggregates – from wings to the engine and the wingtip of the fuselage. X-55 designers were awarded with the most prestigious state awards for their innovative project..

Air launch 

This photograph was made on 24 October 1974 during the first ever air launch of the Minuteman I Intercontinental ballistic missile from the C-5 Galaxy carrier-aircraft. Henry Kissinger, former U.S. Secretary of State, used this historic launch as a diplomatic leverage to convince the USSR to sign SALT II treaty in 1979.

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Bede BD-5 airplane (first flight in September 1971, 150 airplanes produced) got a chance for a second life in 2011 thanks to the successful design solutions used in this plane. BD-5 is equipped with TJ-100 engine produced in the Czech Republic, which made it a modern and affordable mini-jet on the market..

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Return delivery

 Soviet engineers designed X-55 (Kh-55) “Kent” cruise missile as a response to American BGM-109 Tomahawk (time frames of design proccess 1972-1980). The missile, as well as its modifications, has surpassed its rival across the Atlantic in terms of design solutions and technical specifications. 

It explains why the production of X-55 was transferred from Kharkiv State Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Kharkiv, Ukraine) to “Avitek” Vyatka Machine Building Enterprise (Kirov, Russia) in 1986, which was just a few years before the downfall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the emergence of dozens of new nation-states, including independent Ukraine. …

New generation AN-124 “Ruslan”: concept of serial production process

3 February 2015

Universal giant

An-124 with cargo

In October 1997, AN-124 scored a record-high tonnage of cargo transported in one go. The airplane delivered a 125 tons’ chemical reactor, while the total weight with special equipment was 140 tons. Also, AN-124 was used to carry 88-tons pumps made by Putzmesiter after the Fukushima disaster.

Parade of ideas

“Volga-Dnepr” company created a concept version of AN-124-102 with a widened for 2,3 meters fuselage. That came on the top of another modification AN-124-210 equipped with Rolls Royce RB-211 engines.

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C-5: Reincarnation

In August 2014, 22 C-5M Super Galaxy airplanes have been modernised according to the Reliability Enhancement and Re-Engining Program (RERP) that includes setting up a digitalised cockpit and updated GE CF6-80C2 (F138) engines. This program is scheduled to be completed by 2018.

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Legacy in question

 In the twentieth spy film of James Bond franchise called Die Another Day (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer & 20th Century Fox (UK)2002), AN-124 airplane became one of the main elements of the film’s mis-en-scene. Both AN-124 and AN-225 “Mriya”, which featured in the 2012 film (Sony Pictures Releasing US2009) survived during crises showed in the films.

On 17 December 2013, Ukraine and Russia signed an agreement to resume production of AN-124 “Ruslan” with D-18T engines

Personal 360º - panoramic on-line video capture device

27 January 2015

First steps


In 2000, FlyCam (Fuji Xerox, Japan) for the first time demonstrated panoramic on-line video imaging merging images from an array of video cameras mounted around the circumference at different angles. Video information was available at a HTTP-server. 

Hands-free panoramas

Panoramic imaging is becoming more and more popular: in January 2014 Motrr company (US) presented an original gadget allowing your iPhone or GoPro camera to shoot a high-quality 360º-panorama in an automatic mode.

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Everything is seen

The panoramic real-time video may become the means ensuring realistic visual control in places where security depends on human actions or where human actions require continuous analysis.

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Personal capture

 One of the female characters of The Jackal thriller movie (The Jackal, Universal Studios Inc., 1997) Valentina Kozlova (played by Diane Venora) – an honest and ascetic police major who refused from security measures proposed to her under the witness protection program, said: «The good guys don’t hide». We are being watched and controlled but each of us has an unconditional right of self-control – the main method of individual protection against temptations and provocations. iPlate© is designed as a multi-functional device with a wide application range, and one of its features is to ensure 360º - panoramic on-line video feed with a possibility of intellectual analysis, as well as video and sound recording. …

Aerial interaction for civil and military purposes

23 January 2015

Eye of a Warrior

Q-Warrior Helmet

In early 2014 BAE Systems presented a new system of wearable military gear called Q-Warrior. This is a colored, 3D heads-up display that provides a soldier with online video updates about the situation on the battlefield. 

Hotspot drone

Since 2014, DARPA (US) has conducted a series of test for mobile hotspots installed in special containers in UAVs such as RQ-7 Shadow. It has an output capacity of 1Gb/s (weight of equipment: 9 kg, power use: less than 150 watts).

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Long-range Wi Fi  

In 2012, DARPA used technologies of Ubiquiti Networks, Inc (US) to launch a project that envisaged Wi-Fi hotspots with an output capacity of 100Gb/s WiFi and with a reach of 190 km.

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A flying gadget

 The concept of a monitoring device called iPlate© was developed in 2010, however, it could not be produced back then due to the lack of necessary technologies on the market. These technological limitations have been lifted recently, while the potential of the device to be used for military purposes accelerated the whole process. iPlate© was designed to provide a 360º-panoramic intellectual online broadcast (Live Panoramic Broadcast) via WiFi / Bluetooth

Conversion of a piloted aircraft into a UAV

12 January 2015

Fighter jet drone

QF-16 in flight

 In 2014, Boeing had six modified QF-16 UAV; the company is about to launch a serial production in Q4 2014 with the official release scheduled for 2015. During test flights, QF-16 UAV has been tested under 7G overload, yet QF-16 is capable to perform manoeuvres even under 9G. 

MQ-8C for Maritime Forces

On 16 December 2014, the UAV version of the MQ-8C Fire Scout helicopter (piloted version Bell 407) has landed on the USS  “Jason Dunham”.

UAV conversion

In September 2013, the unmanned version of famous F-16 jet called QF-16 UAV made its first flight. From that moment, it became clear that the modification of traditional aircraft into UAVs is more than a mere experiment. Paul Cejas, project’s chief designer, told “QF-16 UAV is ideal for operations on the enemy’s territory made to accomplish dangerous missions, while pilots stay in safety”. Impressive piloting opportunities  that are not limited by the pilot’s physique, as well as the absence of a complex and heavy life-support system on the drone are going to make the process of converting existing and new jets into drones as the main area of military aircraft production. …

Concept of adaptation of Western-produced vendor items on AN-74

31 December 2014

Long-term reliability

foto 01 ta 13

ТА-12-2 tachometer (produced by Kazan plant “Elekropribor”, Russia)  used on AN-72 и AN-74; designed for scaling and indicating speed of engine shafts, indicated in percents, as well as to send electric signals to the automatic parameters register system.  ТА-12-2 has been in production since 1978 and did not go through any major modernisation in the last 37 years.

Cutting-edge experience 

Safran Messier-Bugatti-Dowty (FR) – a major chassis producer –  emerged as a result of merger of several specialised firms in 2011. The company became the supplier of landing system for  Airbus A400M, Global Express, Sukhoi SuperJet 100, etc.

A pathway to Europe

The last delivery of AN-74 has occurred back in 2000: it was AN-74TK-100 owned by GazpromAvia registry number  RA-74016. It was one of 120 airplanes delivered to Russia (the total number of aircraft produced  was 195  of AN-72 / AN-74 by January 2015). Although 75% of materials and vendor items (account positions) and about 45% of elements were purchased from Russian producers, the unique AN-72 / AN-74 airplanes were not delivered to either Ukraine or Russia anymore. …

AN-74 multi-purpose engine concept adopted for the modern market

30 December 2014

Boeing vs Airbus

CFM 56 Lauda 737

Without a doubt, Boeing 737 is one of the most successful commercial air project in history – 8,305 airplanes have been produced by November 2014 since its release in 1968. The aircraft continues its uncompromising competition with Airbus A-320 (6,385 airliners produced since 1988). International cooperation transformed these rivalries into a marketing and brand competition, while the key vendor items for both companies are chosen considering customer requirements and particular features of the market. Boeing 737 is equipped with Pratt & Whitney engines (USA) or CFM International (France); А-320: Pratt & Whitney (USA), CFM International (France) or IAE (USA, Switzerland, Germany,  Japan) .

Reasons to reconsider

Russian manufacturers considered setting up Rolls Royce RB211-535E4 engines instead of PS-90 on their TU-204 in order to get access into new markets.  Only 6 airplanes with British engines out of 76 were sold. Five of them went to Egypt and one to China.


One year before (in 1971) the submission of AN-72 specifications, a new D-36 engine with a max. thrust of 6,500 kgf had been produced in Ukraine. However, the official date of its release coincides with that of the first AN-72: 31 August 1977. The engine became the heart of the entire АN-72 and АN-74 family; it was recognised as having extraordinary technical specifications and successful history of use. Yak-42 and  Be-200 were equipped with modifications of D-36. …

Modernisation of the AN-74 cockpit: moving from the analogue to digital equipment (concept)

29 December 2014

Eternal worker

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Lockheed C-130, a veteran aircraft in the U.S. Air Force, got a second chance for the bright future once the program of modernising the cockpit navigation complex has started in 2007. C-130 control system was modernised first with 4 new multi-functional displays. Later in 2012, digital navigation systems completely replaced the old equipment (up to 5-6 displays could be installed in the cockpit). The price of modernisation in 2014 is 7m USD. The total number of C-130 is more than 2,300 airplanes.

Mass renewal

Since 2010, Hawker 800A/B/XP airplanes have been modernised with Honeywell Primus Epic CDS/R systems. Aircraft received modern navigation equipment and a guaranteed technical support around the world. The price of modification starts from 600,000 USD.

Digital choice

Analogue equipment will soon turn into museum artefacts that would show the highlights of the aviation of the past. The same has happened with dial phones and arithmometers already. This is inevitable for autonomous gyro-horizons and other analogue elements in the cockpit. In the short-term new pilot regulations will not account for hundreds of airplanes equipped with analogue equipment. Since 2003,  Honeywell (US) has started working on a universal digital navigation complex that could be installed on both civil and military airplanes. …

AN-74 Fuel Tanker concept

27 December 2014

The Viking Returns

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Since from April 2014, the repair works of the 91st C-3 Viking airplane started. The modification of C-3 Viking called KS-3A still can be used as a fuel tanker required by the U.S. Maritime Forces. KS-3A (weight of fuel in external tanks amounts to 5.961 kg + 1.851 kg) can refuel a range of airplanes, as well as helicopters and tiltrotor airplane Bell V-22 Osprey.

Midas and the Bear

In December 2014, Russia flexed its muscles on the Norwegian border when IL-78 (“Midas” in NATO classification) refuelled TU-95MS strategic bomber nicknamed “The Bear”.

Fuel on call

Conventional wisdom states that fuel tanker is a large and clumsy airplane that helps much more manoeuvrable jets. Boeing KS-135 Stratotanker, Lockheed HC-130 or IL-78 «Midas» are all good  examples of such big planes. It is logical if we consider long-range strategic aviation. But what about fuelling fighter jets and helicopters during a local military conflict? A large fuel tanker airplane would be a comfortable target for the enemy and the entire refuelling could jeopardise the lives of aircraft crews.  …

AN-74 concept as a military and logistics aircraft based in the Arctic

25 December 2014

A combat snowmobile

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In 2013, Canadian companies have started the development of the “Loki” military snowmobile (named after the Scandinavian god of deception). Its key advantage was low noise levels. The designers use a hybrid propulsion system, which also considerably increases the snowmobiles fuel efficiency.

The cold response

In 7-21 March, the “Cold Response 2014” military games have been organised in Norway in which 16,000 of troops from sixteen NATO member-states. The games were hosted to test the military training in the Arctic weather conditions. A number of official sources reported that Sweden’s military leadership took command of the international brigade.

Polar S.W.A.T.

Hardly anyone could imagine that the Arctic will become one of the focal points of international tensions back on 26 June 1986 when the prototype of AN-74 polar plane has taken off. The current confrontation stems from geopolitical ambitions of several countries in the region. Despite the fact that Ukraine remains the only country that serially  produces AN-74, Russia owns the largest fleet made up from these aircraft, even though this fleet is outdated.  …

AN-74 concept for air assault troops

23 December 2014

Mobilis in Mobili

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Mobilis in Mobili is AN-74 motto. There is a handful of airplanes that can carry military SUVs and armored vehicles. AN-74 is the most mobile aircraft that can transport one of the numerous armored vehicles from different producers. The vehicle is fixed with hard locks in AN-74 cargo cabin. Additionally, there are rails that direct the vehicle in order to avoid minor accidents at the loading and unloading stages.

AN-74 chassis

Five powerful chassis of AN-74 enable the aircraft to take off and land on loose soil, tight sand and flat surfaces even in the mountainous areas.

Local peacekeeper

What do you have to do if you need to conduct a high-risk military operation 1,000-2,000km away from the headquarters, especially if your troops require special equipment such as a heavily armored car?   Moreover, soldiers must act swiftly and at maximum discretion.  Military command occasionally encounter such problems; its solution depends on particular technological methods. An-74 “flying SUV” aircraft may become the most  effective platform for fulfilling such tasks. …

Мulti-purpose transport aircraft with monitoring and protection airborne systems

19 December 2014

Modernised Gunship

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 Lockheed AC-130U program has brought a remarkable AC-130 back to life when the first С-130 Hercules was reequipped into a “flying fortress” for the first time. This airplane provided air support for troops with its heavy weaponry. In 2011, the U.S. military started to use  AN /AAQ-39, targeting system of a new generation  for AC-130U (price of one aircraft: 190 mln USD). Moreover, Alenia is going to produce a first batch of C-27J Spartan under the MC-27J Pretorians project, which is aimed to transform the serial aircraft into a Gunship. The first delivery of the “Pretorians” is scheduled for 2016. 

Sky marshal

2014 was a tragic year for many countries: domestic and international conflicts worldwide forced leaders of many countries to look closely at the military potential of their forces. The experience of the Vietnam War (1957-1975) became timely again. Lockheed AC-130 airplanes, which were produced as a modernised version of C-130, was actively engaged  in the U.S. Air Force since America’s official involvementin the conflict in 1965.  AC-130 provided air support for troops, conducted patrol missions and attacked marked land objects and moving forces of the enemy, which were identified during patrol missions. …

Autonomous hovercraft platform for the take off and landing of UAVs

15 January 2014

Back to 1983

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Antonov AN-14Sh was built in 1983 as an experimental aircraft, which used a hovercraft instead of traditional chassis. The airplane rode 700 km on ground and concrete runways (with 150 operating hours). As a result, the design demonstrated a number of positive properties.

Amphibious all-terrain vehicle

Two “Arctic-2DK” ships were delivered to the port of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy in January 2013. They were produced in Omsk (Russia) and can reach 120 km/h above the ground and up to 80 km/h above the water.  These ships can carry 2 persons + 2000 kg of cargo. Sizes of the ship for transportation: L 10,4 m, W 2,4 m, H 1,85 m. 

Independent Assistant

Although pilots of C-130J Super Hercules or Antonov AN-74T-200A consistently demonstrate their skills and technological  capabilities of their “flying SUVs” while taking off and landing on ice or swamped  soil, there is still a huge list of constraints for landing conditions of these airplanes. Moreover, you need a professional investigation of the landing site and preparation works. If you need to launch a UAV weighing more than 1,000 kg, it is also launched from the runway with the only exception of using large and heavy missile-type launch systems as

Transport unmanned aerial vehicles

3 October 2013

Cargo UAV- helicopter

This UAV was produced in 2011 on the basis of Kama K-1200 (Kaman Aerospace and Lockheed Martin). It was first used as part of military missions in Afghanistan, supplying the U.S. marines. This UAV can carry up to 2.7 tons of cargo on distances of up to 500 km.

ARES Project

In 2015, the government of the United States is planning to start trials of a new UAV designed for transport missions. (ARES Project by Lockheed Martin).

Google and UAVs

Google has announced about its independent development of an aircraft that can be used to deliver cargo. Google experts hope that such UAVs can be employed in relief missions in the aftermath of natural disasters. 

A veteran drone

In 2013, Russian authorities announced a competition for the best concept of a cargo UAV aircraft that can carry up to 50 tons for scheduled flights. There was one obstacle on the way. The international cargo aviation industry has been developing for a century. A huge infrastructure was created as a result of this process: cargo terminals, logistics for these shipments, particular standards for aircraft containers and pallets. There is no doubt that the unmanned transport airplanes with integrated state-of-art technologies is the future of the industry. …

Launch and return system of unmanned aerial vehicles

5 September 2012


United States Air Force researched opportunities to use Boeing 747 as a flying aircraft carrier. The famous defence contractor designed a concept which freed part of the aircraft interior for “micro-fighter jets”. The concept remained on paper, as no technological solutions to fulfil the project had been found yet.


United States Maritime Force launched Sparrowhawk bi-planes filled with zeppelin helium produced by Goodyear-Zeppelin.

Combat UAVs

Northrop Grumman, Canada will be able to use Polar Hawk UAV to monitor the ice surface from the height of 18,300 km for 33 hours. The price of one UAV is 200 million USD. 

A new approach

Americans have been recognised as trend-setters in the research and development of unmanned aerial vehicles. The U.S. government’s determination to spend billions of dollars on the military development attracts major corporations for further modification of combat and reconnaissance UAVs. The original concept, however, remains unchanged: extremely long flight distances - 24-30 hours in air - satellite control. Such kid of products are oriented solely on domestic market and that of several countries such as Germany, for instance, RQ-4E Euro Hawk priced 1.2bn EUR for 5 UAVs for the Bundeswehr. …

© Pavel Naumenko / Library and Information Science Resources 2014